Since I haven’t made the dish before its hard to say - but in general from what I’ve learned on that site and from cooking some asian food (casually, I’m no pro)
Green for black cardamon - I think you’ll be okay but they are different. I believe black cardamon is stronger and different in flavor and substituting the other way (black for green) is a no, no.
Fresh orange peel for dried - should be fine. I might add a little more fresh since, in my experience, the dried is a little stronger in flavor.
Rock sugar - I would think pilloncillo would be fine but I might just sub white sugar.
5 spice instead of star anise - that one is tough to say since I don’t know what the final flavor is supposed to be . . . . a purist may say no way . . . . I’d risk it